Per KM; Peak Travel Time;
Free-Flow Speed: 50km/h
Compact Car, 14.4km/h
Time Cost
Based on LRTP
Cost of Congestion TTI
1.70 1.71
Vehicle Cost (CAA) 0.00 0.45
Excess Vehicle Operating Cost (LRTP) 0.00 0.02
Obesity Risk (LRTP) (-1.05) 1.004
Premature Death (-1.09) 0.00
Walkability Booster (-1.06) 0.00
Accidents (LRTP) 0.00 0.02
Vehicle Emissions (LRTP) 0.00 0.002
Total Social Cost/Benefit -1.5 3.21



The city of Copenhagen has produced a working paper for Economic evaluation of cycle projects to assess the social economic costs and benefits of cycling investment. The model evaluates metrics such as:

  • Vehicle Operating Costs
  • Time Costs
  • Accident Costs
  • Pollution and Externalities
  • Recreational Values
  • Health Benefits
  • Safety Costs
  • Comfort Costs


The Region of Peel has a Long Range Transportation Plan – Update 2012 (LRTP) report. However, costs associated with congestion are presented inconsistently, whereas Copenhagen uses a model where cost/benefit is presented per kilometer of cycling investment. The model of calculations used in this document in order to present as $ per KM of investment are as follows:



Converting Annual Excess Cost of Congestion, Per Capita

Using annual Excess Vehicle Operating Costs as an example:

  • per KM = $89 / 52 weeks
  • per KM = $1.71 / 5 work days per week
  • per KM = $0.34 / 16km per day
  • per KM = $0.02


Converting Percentage Rates

Where costs of benefits are presented as a percentage, it is expressed as the total gain from a dollar investment. For example, a 6% societal benefit is expressed as a credit to society of -1.06.


Calculating Automobile Median Speed

The method for estimating the Automobile Median Speed during peak travel time is detailed on the Commute Trip Measurements page.



Working paper: Economic evaluation of cycle projects – methodology and unit prices
Last Accessed: Tuesday, December 19, 2017, 10:30pm

Peel Long Range Transportation Plan – Update 2012
Last Accessed: Tuesday, December 19, 2017, 3:00pm

Cycle Survey
Last Accessed: 

Compact Car Driving Cost Per KM provided by Canadian Automobile Association
Last Access: Wednesday, December 20, 2017, 12:10pm