Expending 100 Calories (7.5 minutes at 16 km/h) in a single commute trip is associated with a mortality benefit of about 20%.
Obesity and Heart Disease Risk
Rates of overweight and obesity are lower in neighbourhoods located closer to downtown areas. Findings from Toronto show that the rates of diabetes follow a similar pattern. A 5 per cent increase in neighbourhood walkability is associated with a 32
Based on an Automobile Median Speed of 16.6km/h:
- .06 / 16.6 = 0.004 per km
Source: Peel Long Range Transportation Plan – Update 2012
“Cyclists who cover at least 40 kilometres each week halve their risk of heart disease when compared with those who do not cycle “
For the purposes of a Social Economic Cost-Benefit Comparison on a per km basis: 1km of cycle travel reduces
Source: Cycling: towards health and safety. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.
“Minimal adherence to current physical activity guidelines, which yield an energy expenditure of about 1000 kcal x wk(-1) (4200 kJ x wk(-1)), is associated with a significant 20-30% reduction in risk of all-cause mortality.”
“Furthermore, an increase in energy expenditure from physical activity of 1000 kcal (4200 kJ) per week or an increase in physical fitness of 1 MET (metabolic equivalent) was associated with a mortality benefit of about 20%.”
Daily Kcal Expenditure (Dkc)
- Dkc = 1000 kcal / 5
- Dkc = 200 kcal
A typical commute week of 5 commuting days, with a daily expenditure of 200 kcal (Calories), or 100 Calorie work/return trips, is associated with a mortality benefit of about 20%.
Calculating Kcal Expenditure of a Sample Commute
The expenditure of Calories is a function of weight, distance, and time, and for this document will be calculated using this formula:
- Joules = 0.5 * (Rider KG + Bike KG) * POWER(Trip Distance m / Trip Time sec., 2)
- Calories = (Joules / 4184) * Trip Time secs
Note: This formula does not take drag or coasting into consideration.
- The 2008 mean weight of a person was 81.6 kg.
Source: 2008 Canadian Community Health Survey (subsample).
- Bicycle weights can vary, depending on style and purpose. A commuter bicycle on the heavy side is about 13kg.
Source: City bicycle. (2017, June 8). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.
Retrieved June 14, 2017
- The average cycling speed in Brampton is 16 km/h.
Given these inputs, a minimum 100 Calorie trip can be calculated this way:
- Joules = 0.5 * (81.6 + 13) * POWER(2,000 m / 450, 2)
- Joules = 0.5 * (94.6) * POWER(4.444, 2)
- Joules = 0.5 * 94.6 * (4.444)(4.444)
- Joules = 0.5 * 94.6 * 19.749
- Joules = 934
- Calories = (Joules / 4,184) * Trip Time secs
- Calories = (934 / 4,184) * 450
- Calories = 0.223 * 450
- Calories = 100
Based on this estimation, it takes about 7.5 minutes of sustaining 16 km/h (2,000 m over 450 seconds) to expend 100 Calories in a single commute trip, which in turn is associated with a mortality benefit of about 20% over the course of a week.
- 20% / 2km – 10% benefit per km